Posted: December 23rd, 2022

Concept of azotemia Essay Assignment Paper

Concept of azotemia Essay Assignment Paper

Topic 12 DQ 1

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Topic 12 DQ 1
Question One.
Azotemia is a condition that occurs when there is erroneous raise of nitrogenous products and creatinine in the blood. Usually, the raise is caused by the inability of the renal system to filter waste products properly. It is usually the underlying factor in both acute and chronic kidney injury (Tyagi & Aeddula, 2021)
Prerenal azotemia – It is decreased or lack of blood flow to the kidneys due to injuries such as dehydration, over-diuresis, or intravascular depletion. It is diagnosed by a BUN test of greater than 21 mg/dl and fractional excretion of urea less than 35%.
Renal – this is the damage in the structure of the kidney especially the renal tubules, glomeruli, renal vasculature, and the interstitium. It is diagnosed by Urea Osmo less than m0sm/kg.

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Post-renal – It results from complications in the ureters and bladder. The patient is diagnosed with obstruction usually with recurrent conditions of UTIs, hydronephrosis, or benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Question Three
Neurogenic bladder dysfunction can be caused by congenital anomalies like damage of the central and peripheral nervous system and meningomylocele. It affects the coordination of the bladder sphincter leading to its interactivity called hypotonic or over activity called hyper-reflexive. The patient may have a full bladder but not be able to expel the waste or not be able to control the bladder. Normal bladder function involves low-pressure filling of the bladder when storing urine and coordination of the detrusor contraction of the internal and external urinary sphincter movement during the expulsion of urine. It is diagnosed through urinalysis, creatinine clearance, bladder cystometrogram, and urinary flow rate evaluation. The condition is usually manageable through medications, lifestyle change, use of catheters, or by surgery.

References
Tyagi A, Aeddula NR. Azotemia. [2021 May 12]. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls
Publishing; 2022 Jan: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK538145/

Question
Select two of the following questions for your discussion response. Indicate which questions you have chosen using the format displayed in the “Discussion Forum Sample.”

1. Explain the concept of azotemia (including prerenal, renal, and postrenal), causes, and diagnostic measures used to identify each.
2. Identify and discuss the pathophysiology underlying one pediatric urological disorder.
3. Spinal cord injuries carry a high risk of neurogenic bladder and reflex incontinence. Explain the mechanisms responsible for these disorders.

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