Posted: April 12th, 2017

List two of several of the adaptations plants evolved to enhance their survival on land. What three features serve to distinguish vascular plants from nonvascular plants?

The symbiotic relationship with fungi called mycorrhizae:

a.    allow plants to take up minerals such as phosphorus

b.    cause disease in the infected plant

c.    only benefit the fungus

d.    existed only millions of years ago


2.   All of the following are methods plants have evolved to help them conserve water EXCEPT for:

a.    a waxy cuticle

b.    stomata

c.    spores

d.  mycorrhizae


3.  In order to disperse water throughout themselves more effectively, plants evolved:

a.    pores

b.    vascular systems

c.    circulatory systems

d.    high pressure in their roots


4.   The first vascular plants occurred in the fossil record _________ years ago.

a.   430 million

b.    1 million

c.    100,000

d.    4.5 billion



5.   There are ______________ species of plants alive today.

a.    1,000

b.    8,500

c.    15,000

d.   263,500


6.   The first successful land plants, even though they lacked vascular tissue, were the:

a.    mosses

b.    coniferous trees

c.    liverworts and hornworts

d.    ferns


7.   _____________ are plants with primitive conducting systems.

a.   Mosses

b.    Coniferous trees

c.    Liverworts and hornworts

d.    Ferns


8.   There are ___________ species of mosses worldwide.

a.    10

b.    100

c.    800

d.  9,500


9.   Early vascular plants grew by only cell division at the tips of the stems and shoots, a type of growth called:

a.   primary growth

b.    secondary growth

c.    wood

d.    vascular growth


10.   Which group has the tallest living specimens today?

a.   vascular plants

b.    mosses

c.    hornworts

d.    liverworts


11.   During the sporophyte generation in the life cycle of a fern, the plant releases _______________that germinate and become gametophytes.

a.   haploid spores

b.    diploid spores

c.    haploid gametes

d.    diploid gametes



12.   In a seed plant, the pollen grains are actually tiny:

a.    female gametophytes

b.    seeds

c.   male gametophytes

d.    eggs


13.   The first seed plants were the:

a.    ferns

b.    gymnosperms

c.    angiosperms

d.    monocots


14.   Among the longest-surviving group of gymnosperms, the ___________ had relatives alive on earth during the days of the dinosaur.

a.  cycads

b.    dicots

c.    monocots

d.    ferns


15.   The second whorl of flowers is made up of ____________ with the purpose of __________________.

a.    sepals; protection

b.    carpel; housing the egg cell

c.   petals; attracting pollinators

d.    stamens; housing pollen


16.   The process by which flowers evolved brighter colors, nectar rewards, and fragrances to attract pollinators that themselves became adapted to certain types of flowers is called:

a.    nutrient cycling

b.    narrowing niche breadth

c.    artificial selection

d.   coevolution


17.   Flowers frequented by insects are typically not _____ because insects cannot detect this color.

a.    yellow

b.  red

c.    blue

d.    white


18.   What kinds of angiosperms have reverted to wind pollination?

a.    oaks

b.    grasses

c.    birches

D    all of these




19.   In double fertilization, the second fertilization after fertilization of the egg occurs with the:

a.    carpel

b.    pollen

c.    synergids

D    polar nuclei


20.   Dicots evolved _________ monocots.

a.    before

b.    after



21.   Plants are _____________ because they can produce their own food.

22.   _______________________ are symbiotic associations between fungi and plant roots.

23.   A ___________ is an opening into the outermost layer of a leaf.

24.   Gametophyte generations produce ____________.

25.   The ______________________________ occurs when a gametophyte generation alternates with a sporophyte generation.

26.   The _________ are the most abundant type of seedless vascular plant.

27.   _________ surround the seed(s) in flowering plants, aiding in dispersal.

28.   In some seeds, _____________ is used up in the formation of the cotyledons.

29.   Flower parts are connected to a base called a _____________________ .

30.   A common name for secondary plant growth in stems is ________.

31.   List two of several of the adaptations plants evolved to enhance their survival on land.

32.   What three features serve to distinguish vascular plants from nonvascular plants?

33.   Why is the evolution of secondary growth important for plants?

34.   Of what advantage might it be for a plant to produce a seed rather than to be seedless?

35.   How do the seeds of angiosperms differ from those of gymnosperms?

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